By Robert F. Mullins, Jessica M. Skeie (auth.), Iok-Hou Pang, Abbot F. Clark (eds.)
Affecting over 100 million members world wide, retinal ailments are one of the top explanations of irreversible visible impairment and blindness, and applicable research types, specially animal types, are necessary to furthering our figuring out of the etiology, pathology, and development of those endemic illnesses. In Animal versions for Retinal Diseases, well-known specialists within the box spotlight priceless options in addition to animal versions for the admired retinal ailments with a purpose to reduction within the assessment, improvement, and development of healing techniques. starting with an summary of the morphology of the retina, visible habit, and genetics and genomics methods for retinal study, the publication keeps by means of protecting animal types for the learn of particular human retinal illnesses, e.g., retinal degeneration, age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, retinal ischemia, and retinal irritation. As a quantity within the profitable Neuromethods sequence, the chapters offer authoritative stories of the main favourite ways within the field.
Vital and simple to take advantage of, Animal types for Retinal Diseases serves to help the $64000 destiny learn of ocular investigators, ophthalmologists, and neuroscientists at the moment delving into this attention-grabbing box of study.
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Assessing Mutations on Multiple Genetic Backgrounds can Identify Quantitative Trait Loci and Genetic Modifiers An important component of studying the consequences of genetic mutations is the assessment of the phenotype on different genetic backgrounds. In human diseases, a mutation in one individual can result in severe symptoms, whereas that same mutation can cause little or no disease in others. This is often due to differences in their genetic background. 2. An ENU-induced mutation causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy in mice.
Following gene mapping, the most common mutation detection strategy is to amplify by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence all functional elements (coding regions, untranslated regions (UTRs), and promoters) for genes contained within the critical region. This relatively simple PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing strategy has been made possible by the availability of a well-annotated mouse genome sequence. By comparing affected and nonaffected individuals, potential disease-causing mutations are identified.
A number of features influence the usefulness of a particular animal as a genetic model for human retinal diseases. These include: (1) the similarity of the retina of the animal model to the human retina, (2) the availability of resources such as wellcharacterized genomes and genetically defined strains, (3) the ability to manipulate the genome to generate new disease models, and (4) the ease and cost of housing and breeding the animal model. In this review, we highlight three animal models (mouse, zebrafish, and fruit fly) that are being used as genetic tools to study human retinal disorders.
Animal Models for Retinal Diseases by Robert F. Mullins, Jessica M. Skeie (auth.), Iok-Hou Pang, Abbot F. Clark (eds.)
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