By Joseph F. Albright
George Washington Univ. college of medication, Washington, D.C. Examines the foremost beneficial properties and services of the immune method probably to be altered by means of the getting older method. reports the sluggish breakdown of the resistance to an infection within the elderly and discusses lifespan extension and dietary hold up of immunosenescence. DNLM: Immunity--Aged.
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Extra resources for Aging, Immunity, and Infection
There has been some debate concerning which experimental animal serves as a suitable model of human TB; and, further, as to whether or not aging experimental animals are more susceptible to Mycobacterium infections than young adults. It was reported that old mice were no more susceptible than young adults to M. tuberculosis (16). The levels of bacteria in target organs and the frequency of death from infection were reported to be essentially the same in young and aged mice. Systematic studies by Orme and associates have shown that there is a difference in the way mice (young and old) cope with M.
Resistance of entercocci was first reported in 1986, which resulted in considerable effort to elucidate the causes (75,76). Vancomycin is a glycopeptide that interferes with cell wall formation of Gram-negative bacteria. It interacts with D-alanine at the C-terminus of precursors of peptidoglycans. This creates a complex from which the precursor substances cannot be transferred by transglycosidases to the growing peptidoglycan cell wall. Resistance to vancomycin appears as a consequence of expression in bacteria of transposable genes, which encode cell-wall-synthesizing enzymes that alter the C-terminus of the peptidoglycan precursors from D-alanine to D-lactate.
24 Aging, Immunity, and Infection The healthy bladder is quite resistant to colonization by bacteria. Emptying of the bladder is the most effective way of preventing bacteria from colonizing. The elasticity of the bladder diminishes with age, which makes effective emptying more difficult. Whereas among mature adults the incidence of bacteria is much greater in females, in males and females over age 65 the incidence of bacteria is almost equal. The principal contributing factors are 1) obstructive uropathy from prostatic disease in males, 2) impaired emptying of the bladder with residual urine in females, and 3) urethral catheters and associated paraphernalia in both (5).
Aging, Immunity, and Infection by Joseph F. Albright
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